Start Arigun Dou Bin Xiangshi? Fude? Namjal? Zhanyinbao
Download jpg (low resolution, after restoration) qianlong.research@163.com contact






About us


Historical Background


List of Officers


Fragment right: Officer Machang


Fragment left: Officer Doubin a.o.


Overview Officers on the Photo


Literature



Historical Background

The painting shows the famous battle, which took place on 3. February, 1759 in Qurman ( 呼 爾 滿 hu er man, Huerman, Hu'erman) in the present Chinese province of Xinjiang ( 新 疆 ). It ended in a glorious victory of the Chinese troops under General Fude (1a6) and Machang (1a25).

Until this battle the province Xinjiang was not under permanent Chinese control. First the Dsungars controlled this area but in the years between 1755 to 1757 they were almost eliminated due to victorious Chinese campaigns (the »Battles of Yili«).

Soon Muslim Turkmens made an uprising against the Chinese. To put down the uprising the Chinese General Zhaohui (1a2) lead an army to the area where he was closed in by superior Turkmen forces near the city of Yarkand ( 叶 尔 羌 , 葉 爾 羌 ) by the river Kara Usu ( 黑 水 河, translated »Black Water River«).

General Zhaohui send five messengers to other Chinese troops in the area for help. As a result several relief armies under command of among others the officers Fude, Machang, Agui (1a17), Shuhede (1a13), Aligun (1a14), Zhanyinbao (1b14), Namjal (1a4), Yan Xiangshi (1b7), Isamu (1b28), Dou Bin (1a21) and Duan-ji-bu (1a23) set off to rescue General Zhaohui.

The relief army under the lead of officer Fude and Machang was the one who fought the Battle of Qurman on February 3, 1759. All of a sudden the 600 Chinese soldiers were attacked by over 5,000 enemy cavalryman. The Chinese soldiers did not only fight back the attack but also rescued General Zhaohui from the siege. As a result the Chinese army could within a short period of time conquer the whole region and bring it under permanent control of the Chinese motherland.

In 1760 emperor Qianlong ordered to paint 100 portraits of the most meritorious officers of the East Turkestan campaign (see List of Officers, 1a1-1a50 and 1b1-1b50). In the following years another 180 portraits were painted from other campaigns, so altogether there were 280 meritorious officers portraits.

From the East Turkestan campaign emperor Qianlong also ordered the painting of 16 large scale battle paintings (8 meters wide and 4 meters high) in a coproduction of Chinese court painters and European Jesuit monks, a.o. Jean Denis Attiret ( 王 致 誠 wang zhi cheng) and Giuseppe Castiglione ( 郎 世 寧 lang shi ning ). The names of the sixteen paintings / copperprints known as "Les Conquetes de L'Empereur de la Chine" are (Qurman = Nr. 8):

1. Receiving the surrender of the Ili
    On reçoit la soumission de l´Ili 平 定 伊 犁 受 降
    new: order this copper print at THE BRITISH MUSEUM
    (The zoom function at THE BRITISH MUSEUM only works with the
    MicroSoft Internet Explorer)

2. Storming of the Camp at Gädän-Ola
    On force le camp [établi] à Gädän-ola 格 登 鄂 拉 斫 營
    new: order this copper print at THE BRITISH MUSEUM

3. The Battle of Oroi-jalatu
    La combat d´Oroi-jalatu 鄂 壘 扎 拉 圖 之 戰
    new: see this copper print at The Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery
    The Ethnological Museum of Berlin owns this copper plate from Paris (1770)

4. The Victory of Khorgos
    La victoire de Khorgos 和 落 霍 澌 之 捷
    new: see this copper print at The Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery

5. The Battle of Khurungui
    Le combat de Khurungui 庫 隴 癸 之 戰
    new: order this copper print at THE BRITISH MUSEUM

6. The Chief of Us (Turfan) Surrenders with His City
    Le chef d´Us[-Turfan] se soumet avec sa ville 烏 什 酋 長 献 城 降
    new: order this copper print at THE BRITISH MUSEUM

7. Lifting of the Siege at the Black Water River
    La levée du siège de la Rivière Noire 黑 水 圍 解
    new: order this copper print at THE BRITISH MUSEUM

8. The Battle of Qurman (or The Great Victory of Qurman)
    La Grande Victoire de Qurman 呼 爾 满 大 捷
    new: order this copper print at THE BRITISH MUSEUM

9. The Battle of Tonguzluq
    Le combat de Tonguzluq 通 古 思 魯 克 之 戰
    new: order this copper print at THE BRITISH MUSEUM
    The Ethnological Museum of Berlin owns this copper plate from Paris (1770)

10. The Battle of Qos-qulaq
     Le combat de Qos-qulaq 霍 斯 庫 魯 克 之 戰
     new: order this copper print at THE BRITISH MUSEUM

11. The Battle of Arcul
     Le combat d´Arcul 阿 爾 楚 爾 之 戰
     new: see this copper print at The Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery

12. The Battle of Yesil-köl-nor
     Le combat du Yesil-köl-nor 伊 西 洱 庫 爾 淖 爾 之 戰
     new: order this copper print at THE BRITISH MUSEUM

13. The Chef of Badakhsan Asks to Surrender
     Le khan du Badakhsan demande à se soumettre 巴 達 克 山 汗 納 欺
     new: order this copper print at THE BRITISH MUSEUM

14. The Emperor is Presented with Prisoners from the Pacification of the      Muslim Tribes
     On offre [à l´Empereur] les prisionniers [faitslors] de la pacification des tribes      musulmanes 平 定 回 部 献 俘
     new: see this copper print at The Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery

15. The Emperor in the Suburbs Personally Receives News of the Officers      and Soldiers Distinguished in the Campaign against the Muslim Tribes
     [L´Empereur se ren] dans la banlieue pour prendre [personellement] des      nouvelles des officiers et soldates qui se sont distingués dans la campagne contre      les tribus musulmanes 郊 勞 回 部 成 功 諸 將 士
     new: order this copper print at THE BRITISH MUSEUM
     The Ethnological Museum of Berlin owns this copper plate from Paris (1770)

16. A Victory Banquet Given by the Emperor for the Distinguished Officers
     and Soldiers

     [L´Empereur] offre un banquet de victoire aux officiers et soldates qui se sont      distingués 凱 宴 戰 功 諸 將 士
     new: order this copper print at THE BRITISH MUSEUM


These 16 prints were shown in an exhibition in the Louvre, Paris, until May 18, 2009: Prints of Ideal China - When the Emperor Qianlong commissioned prints from Louis XV (pdf) with catalogue (pdf).

(more information on these 16 prints in Michèle Pirazzoli-T'Serstevens, see Literature).

Prints of copper engravings of the East Turkestan campaign were auctioned in 1995 (pdf) 1995 (pdf), 1996 (pdf), 1996 (pdf), 1997 (pdf), 1999 (pdf), 2000 (pdf), 2000 (pdf), 2002 (pdf), 2003 (pdf), 2005 (pdf), 2005 (pdf), 2005 (pdf), 2005 (pdf), 2006 (pdf), 2006 (pdf), 2006 (pdf), 2006 (pdf), 2007 (pdf), 2007 (pdf), 2008 (pdf) 2009 (pdf), 2009 (pdf), 2009 (pdf), 2009 (pdf), 2009 (pdf), 2009 (pdf), 2009 (pdf), 2010 (pdf), 2010 (pdf), 2013 (pdf), 2013 (pdf), 2014 (pdf), 2014 (pdf), 2014 (pdf) .

Please note that many of the auctioned prints are from the later series by Isidore-Stanislas HELMAN who engraved a new series of prints in half the size of the originals for sale to the public in 1786 under the name "Suite des seize Estampes représentant les Conquêtes de l'Empereur de la Chine".


These paintings from the East Turkestan campaign hung in the Hall of Purple Lights ( 紫 zi guang ge, sometimes also referred to as the Hall of Purple Light, Hall of Purple Splendour, Hall of Purple Glory, Purple Light Pavilion, Pavilion of Purple Radiance or Purple Effulgence Pavilion / in German: Halle des Purpurglanzes, Halle des Purpurlichtes, Halle des Purpurlichts). In the following years after 1760 more battle copper engravings were added but they were purely Chinese productions without the historically very interesting elements of the Chinese – European coproduction.

Emperor Qianlong liked the 16 battle paintings from the East Turkestan campaign so much that he ordered to make smaller versions from them. Theses were sent to Paris around 1770 where copper engravings were made. 200 copies from these copper engravings were send back to China and a few extra copies were made for Europeans. Some of the copper plates happened to come the Ethnological Museum of Berlin where they are considered to be extraordinary treasures.

During the Boxer Rebellion in 1900 the German Generalfeldmarschall von Waldersee had the command over the Allied Troops (八国联军). His headquarter was in the Winter Palace, next to the Hall of Purple Lights. Precious artefacts were available on markets all over the Beijing at that time.

In the years after 1902 several meritorious officer portraits from the Hall of Purple Lights came on the German and international art market. The Ethnological Museum of Berlin bought a lot of them and has with 17 portraits (including Dörbed - Series) the worldwide largest collection. The Asian Art Museum of Berlin owns 6 portraits, the Ethnological Museum of Munich and the Museum für Ostasiatische Kunst in Köln and the Metropoliten Museum of Art in New York owns 1 portrait. For more information see List of Officers.

The Ethnological Museum of Hamburg bought its fragment from the right side of painting Battle of Qurman in 1904. Except for this one fragment all the 16 battle paintings were entirely lost, we only know from the prints of the copper plates how the paintings looked like.

The fragment of the left side of the painting "The Battle of Qurman" / "The Great Victory at Qurman" was auctioned on 8. October 2013 at Sotheby's HK, lot 3073 (pdf);



Annex: Further Battle Copper Engravings


Download Total List of Battle Paintings (August 2009) as a Word document


Emperor Qianlong himself regarded his "Ten Great Campaigns" (十 全 武 功) to be one of his biggest successes in life. The "Ten Great Campaigns" are:
1. First Jinchuan Campaign 1747-1749
2. First Dsungaren Campaign 1755
3. Second Dsungaren Campaign 1756-1757
4. East Turkestan Campaign1758-1759
5. Burma Campaign1766-1770
6. Second Jinchuan Campaign (Goldstreamland) 1771-1776
7. Taiwan (Formosa) Campaign1787-1788
8. Annam (Vietnam) Campaign 788-1789
9.+10. Two Campaigns against the Gurkhas 1790-1792

Not from all of these campaigns battle copper engravings do exist. On the other hand some internal struggles were added. Today we know of eight series of battle copper engravings:
1. East Turkestan Campaign 1755 - 1759
2. The Jinchuan Campaign 1771-1776
3. Campaign against Taiwan 1787-1788
4. Gurkha Campain (Nepal) 1792 – 1793
5. Campaign against Annam (Vietnam) 1788 - 1789
6. Campaign against Miao (Hunan) 1795
7. Chong Miao Feldzug (Yunnan) 1795
8. Second East Turkestan Campaign 1828

(9. The Taiping Rebellion "Yue Bandits" 1850 - 1864)
(10. The Nian Rebellion 1853 - 1868)
(11. The Muslim Rebellion Yunnan and Guizhou 1855–1873)
(12. The Muslim Rebellion Shaanxi, Gansu and Xinjiang 1862 – 1877)
(13. Huimin Muslim Battle 1784)

(The allocation of a battle painting in Roger Keverne: Summer Exhibition 2000 is still unclear. Who can help with information?)



Futher important scrolls:

Four scrolls "The Grand Review", 乾 隆 大 阅 图, from around 1747-1748:
Scroll 1 "The Emperor Approaching the Army Base" / "His Majesty proceeds to the
            Camp", 幸 营, present whereabout unknown
Scroll 2 "The Troops in Formation" / "The troops line up", 列 阵, Palace Museum,
            Beijing (pdf)
Scroll 3 "Reviewing the Troops" 阅 阵, Sotheby's HK October 8, 2008, lot 2102 (pdf),                 before that sold at Christie's HK on October 30, 2001, lot 651 (pdf)
Scroll 4 "Marching the Troops" / "Manoeuvre" 行 阵, sold at Saint-Aubin in Toulouse,
            France, on 26 March 2011 (pdf)

and from around 1748: "First announcement of Victory in Pacifying Jinchuan"
Scroll 1 "Sacrifice to the Banner and Mandating the Troops", sold at Christie´s NY,
           1 December 1993, lot 237 (pdf)
Scroll 2 "The Imperial Farewell Banquet at Chang'an", sold at Christie's NY,
           1 December 1993, lot 237 (pdf)
Scroll 3 "The Surrender and the Announcement of Victory"
Scroll 4 "Victory Banquet at the West Garden", Sothebys Paris on November 22, 2005,               Lot 146 (pdf); more information in Nancy Berliners article, see Literature.
            Presently exhibited in the Peabody Essex Museum, (pdf).






1.   平定准噶尔回部得胜图
      East Turkestan Campaign 1755 - 1759



1.0



1.1   平定伊犁受降
        Receiving the surrender of the Ili
        Die Entgegennahme der Unterwerfung von Ili
        = HELMAN 8 "FOU-TE Lieutenant de TCHAO-HOEI poursuit AMOUR-SANA et ..."



1.2   格登鄂拉斫营
        Storming of the Camp at Gädän-Ola
        Der Sturm auf das Camp von Gädän-Ola
        = HELMAN 5 "TSERENG et YU-PAO ayant eu peu d'union entre-eux et leur ..."



1.3   鄂垒扎拉图之战
        The Battle of Oroi-jalatu
        Die Schlacht von Oroi-jalatu
        = HELMAN 9 "Après la retraite d'AMOUR-SANA chez les Russes, l'Empereur ..."

Literature
Bilder für die Halle des Purpurglanzes, Exhibition Berlin 2003, p. 56-57


1.4   和落霍撕之捷
        The Victory of Khorgos
        Der Sieg von Khorgos
        = HELMAN 14 "Bataille d'ALTCHOUR gagnée par FOU-TE contre les deux ..."

Literature
Model drawing in the TENRI UNIVERSITY collection, Japan (formerly Prof. Kuroda Genji).
see Arts Asiatique, 2013, p.41 and p.49.


1.5   库陇霍之战
        The Battle of Khurungui
        Die Schlacht von Khurungui
        = HELMAN 2 "PAN-TI envoyé par l'Empereur pour installer AMOUR-SANA et ..."



1.6   乌什酋长献城降
        The Leader of Us (Turfan) Surrenders with His City
        Der Herr von Us (Turfan) unterwirft sich mit seiner Stadt
        = HELMAN 13 "Tchao-Hoei reçoit dans son Camp sous les murs de Yerechim ..."



1.7   黑水围解
        Lifting of the Siege at the Black Water River
        Das Ende der Belagerung am Schwarzen Fluss
        = HELMAN 3 "Second Combat entre PAN-TI et Ta-OUA-TSI sur les bords de la ..."



1.8   呼尔满大捷
        The Battle of Qurman (or The Great Victory at Qurman)
        Die Schlacht von Qurman (bzw. Der große Sieg von Qurman)
        = HELMAN 7 "AMOUR-SANA marchant avec sécurité à la tête des Troupes qu'il ..."



1.9   通古思鲁克之战
        The Battle of Tonguzluq
        Die Schlacht von Tonguzluq
        = HELMAN 4 "AMOUR-SANA établi Roi des Éleuths par l'Empereur, dont il étoit ..."

Literature
Bilder für die Halle des Purpurglanzes, Exhibition Berlin 2003, p. 58-59
Model drawing in the TENRI UNIVERSITY collection, Japan (formerly Prof. Kuroda Genji).
see Arts Asiatique, 2013, p.41.


1.10 霍斯库鲁克之战
        The Battle of Qos-qulaq
        Die Schlacht von Qos-qulaq
        = HELMAN 10 "Bataille gagnée par TCHAO-HOEI, ou FOU-TÉ, contre le Han ..."



1.11 阿尔楚尔之战
        The Battle of Arcul
        Die Schlacht von Arcul
        = HELMAN 15 "Combat du 1. septembre 1759 dans la Montagne de ..."

Literature
Model drawing in the TENRI UNIVERSITY collection, Japan (formerly Prof. Kuroda Genji).
see Arts Asiatique, 2013, p.42.


1.12 伊西洱库尔淖尔之战
        The Battle of Yesil-kol-nor
        Die Schlacht von Yesil-köl-nor
        = HELMAN 12 "Premier Combat entre l'Armée de l'Empire commandée par ..."



1.13 拔达山汗纳款
        The Khan of Badakhsan Asks to Surrender
        Der Khan von Badakhsan bittet, sich unterwerfen zu dürfen
        = HELMAN 11 "TCHAO-HOEI occupe les Troupes à des exercices et à des jeux ..."



1.14 平定回部献俘
        The Emperor is Presented with Prisonners from the Pacification of the Muslim
        Tribes
        Bei der Unterwerfung mohammedanischer Stämme gemachte Gefangene
        werden dem Kaiser vorgeführt
        = HELMAN 1 "L'Empereur KIEN-LONG, recoit à GE-HO, les hommages des ..."



1.15 郊劳回部成功诸將士
        The Emperor in the Suburbs Personally Receives News of the Officers and
        Soldiers Distinguished in the Campaign against the Muslim Tribes
        Der Kaiser begibt sich persönlich vor die Stadt, um Berichte verdienter
        Offiziere und Soldaten entgegenzunehmen
        = HELMAN 6 "L'Empereur charge TCHAO-HOEI avec le titre de grand Général ..."

Literature
Bilder für die Halle des Purpurglanzes, Exhibition Berlin 2003, p. 60-61


1.16 凱宴成功诸將士
        A Victory Banquet Given by the Emperor for the Distinguished Officers and
        Soldiers
        Der Kaiser hält ein Siegesmahl für ausgezeichnete Offiziere und Soldaten
        = HELMAN 16 "L'Empereur reçoit les hommages des Peuples vaincus des ..."



Helman produced 8 more copper engravings which he sucessfully sold to the public:
1.17 Ploughing Ceremony Conducted by the Emperor of China
1.18+1.19+1.20 Ordinary Procession of the Emperor of China When He Visits the ...
1.21 A Celebration for Veterans ..., see also LETTRE DE AMIOT 15. Octobre 1785
1.22 A Visit by the Emperor to the Tombs of his Ancestors
1.23 Emperor Qianlong Paying Respects at the Tomb of his Ancestors
1.24 The Emperor Reciting Poems in Honour of his Ancestors
(for more inforamtion on these additional 8 prints see the Total List of Battle Paintings)




Auctions:
Xu Yang´s important handscroll of the "Pacifying Xiyu and Offering Captive Ritual" was sold in China on 10 October 2009, Lot 0001 (pdf), (jpg).



1b. 平定鳥什战图
Quelling the Rebels at Wu-She 1765


Quelling the Rebels at Wu-She

Literature:
Emperor Ch'ien-lung's Grand Cultural Enterprise, National Palace Museum, Taipei 2002, p. 137
Lee Tien-ming: The Battle of Shih-feng Fortress and its Military Deployment Map, National Palace Museum RQ 2009, p. 139-174, abstract, abstract Chinese




2.   平定两金川得胜战图
      The Jinchuan Campaign 1771-1776


2.0


2.1   收复小金川
       Reconquer the little Goldstreamland


Literature
This (?) red lacquer panel sold at Sotheby's London, 6 May 1936, lot 192 (pdf)
Spink & Son Ltd, London, 15-25 March 1983, Lot 3 (pdf)
Clifford, Derek Plint: Chinese Carved Lacquer, London 1992, p. 121-125
Christie's NY, 21 March 2000, lot 70 (pdf)


2.2   攻克喇穆及日则丫口
       Conquest of Lamu and Rizi


2.3   攻克罗博瓦山碉
       Conquest of the defence tower at the Luobowa mountain


2.4   攻克宜喜达尔图山梁
       Conquest of the mountain range at Yixi and Daertu


Literature
Christie´s Norfolk, 23 May 1984, lot 2537 (pdf)
Sotheby´s London, 1 November 1984, lot 231 (pdf)

2.5   攻克日旁一带
       Conquest of the mountain Ripang and others


2.6   攻克康萨尔山梁
       Conquest of the Kangsaer mountain range


2.7   攻克木思工噶克丫口
       Conquest of the Musigonggake valley


2.8   攻克宜喜甲索等处碉卡
       Conquest of Yixi, Yiasuo and others


2.9   攻克石真噶贼碉
       Conquest of Shizhenga


2.10 攻克葘则大海昆色尔山梁并拉枯喇嘛寺等处
       Conquest of the Kunser mountain range at Zaizedahai and the lama temple
       Ragu

Literature
Albert Tafel: Meine Tibetreise, 1911 (pdf)

2.11 攻克贼巢
       Conquest of Zeichao


2.12 攻克科布曲索隆古山梁等处明寨
       Conquest of the mountain range Kebuqu and Suolonggu and others


2.13 攻克噶喇依报捷
       Victory promulgation of the conquest of Gelayi


Literature red lacquer panel:
Nagel Auktionen, Stuttgart/Germany, 2 November 2006, lot 1426 (pdf)


2.14 郊台迎劳將军阿桂凯旋
       Victorious return


2.15 午门受俘
       The Emperor is presented with prisoners at the Wumen (Middlegate)

Literature on red lacquer panel:
Carnegie Museum of Art in Pittsburgh, press release (pdf).


2.16 紫光阁凯宴成功诸將士
       Victory banquet for the distinguished officers and soldiers at the Ziguangge
       (Hall of Purple Glaze)



Auctions: (on the two sets of four handscrolls each see above)
Four prints at Christie´s London, 10 May 2006, lot 110 (pdf);
Two prints at Poly Auctions Beijing, 30 May 2008, lot 2119 (pdf);
Four prints at Sotheby's Paris, 16 December 2010, lot 114 (pdf);
Complete set at Artcurial Paris, 11 June 2013, lot 84 (pdf);
Six prints at ZGSD, 16 November 2013, lot 0636 (pdf);




3.   平定台湾战图
      Campaign against Taiwan 1787-1788


3.1   大埔林之战
       Battle at Dabulin


Location of the red lacquer panel: Kasteel Huis Doorn, Netherlands
Literature: Bilder für die Halle des Purpurglanzes, Exhibition Berlin 2003, p. 66

3.2   进攻斗六门
       Attack on Douliumen (Zhuluo)


Location of the red lacquer panel: Asian Art Museum Berlin, Germany
Location of the copper plate: Ethnological Museum of Berlin, Germany
Literature: Bilder für die Halle des Purpurglanzes, Exhibition Berlin 2003, p. 63-65

3.3   攻克斗六门
       Conquer of Douliumen (Zhuluo)

Location of the red lacquer panel: unknown
Literature: Münsterberg, Oskar: Chinesische Kunstgeschichte, p. 435

3.4   攻克大里代贼巢
       Conquer of Dali

Location of the red lacquer panel: Kasteel Huis Doorn, Netherlands
Literature: Bilder für die Halle des Purpurglanzes, Exhibition Berlin 2003, p. 67

3.5   攻剿小半天山
       Attack on the mountain Xiaobantian


Location of the red lacquer panel: Kasteel Huis Doorn, Netherlands

3.6   枯寨之战
       Battle at Kuzhai

Location of the red lacquer panel: unknown
Christie´s London, 12 July 2005, lot 148 (pdf)

3.7   生擒逆首林爽文
       Capture of the rebel chief Lin Shuangwen

Location of the red lacquer panel: Kasteel Huis Doorn, Netherlands

3.8   集集埔之战
       Battle at Jijipu

Location of the red lacquer panel: Kasteel Huis Doorn, Netherlands

3.9   大武境之战
       Battle at Dawujing

Location of the red lacquer panel: Kasteel Huis Doorn, Netherlands

3.10 生擒庄大田
       Capture of Zhuang Datian

Location of the red lacquer panel: unknown
Literature: The Illustrated London News, July 25, 1936
earlier auctioned at Sotheby's London, 9 February 1923, lot 108 (pdf).

3.11 渡海凯旋
       Crossing the ocean and triumphant return


Location of the red lacquer panel: unknown
Literature: The Illustrated London News, 25 July 1936
earlier auctioned at Sotheby's London, 9 February 1923, lot 109 (pdf).
Bilder für die Halle des Purpurglanzes, Exhibition Berlin 2003, p. 13

3.12 凯旋赐宴
       Victory banquet

Location of the red lacquer panel: unknown


Auctions:
Two prints at Christies's London, 25 November 1974, lot 165 (pdf);
complete set at Christies's London, 17 April 1985, lot 276 (pdf);
complete set at Christies's London, 10 December 1990, lot 300 (pdf);
five prints at Christie's London, 22 April 1991, Lot 101 (pdf);
complete set at Christies's HK, 29/30 September 1992, lot 1962 (pdf);
complete set at Sotheby´s HK on 27 April 2003, lot 35 (pdf);
nine prints at Spik Berlin, 20 May, 2006, lot 2420 (pdf);
complete set at Sotheby´s HK, 9 October 2007, lot 1313 (pdf);
four prints at Christie´s London, 7 November 2008, lot 291 (pdf);
Complete set at Artcurial Paris, 11 June 2013, lot 83 (pdf);
one print at Swaen, September 2014?, ID: 34121 (pdf).



4.   平定廓尔喀战图
      Gurkha Campaign (Nepal) 1792 - 1793


4.1   攻克擦木
       Capture of Camu


4.2   攻克玛噶尔辖尔甲
       Capture of Magaer


4.3   攻克济咙
       Capture of Jilong


4.4   攻克热索桥
       Capture of Resuoqiao


4.5   攻克协布噜
       Capture of Xiebulu


4.6   攻克东觉山
       The battle at the mountain Dongjiao


4.7   攻克帕朗古
       Capture of Palanggu


4.8   廓尔喀陪臣至京
       Victory banquet at the Ziguangge (Hall of Purple Glaze)



Auctions:
Eight prints at Christie´s London, 10 May 2006, lot 111 (pdf);
Complete set at Artcurial Paris, 11 June 2013, lot 87 (pdf).




5.   平在安南战图
      Campaign against Annam (Vietnam) 1788 - 1789


5.0


5.1   嘉观诃沪之战
       Battle at Gia-quan and Ha-Ho


5.2   三异柱右之战
       Battle at Tam-dy and Tru-huu

Literature
Christie´s, London, 12 June 1989, lot 106 - now British Museum

5.3   寿昌江之战
       Battle at the River Tho-xuong


5.4   市球江之战
       Battle at the River Thi-cau


5.5   富良江之战
       Battle at the River Phu-luong


5.6   阮惠遣侄阮光显入觐赐宴
       Victory banquet of the emperor to greet Nguyen Quang-Hien, the envoi of
       Nguyen Hue



Auctions:
Complete set at Artcurial Paris, 11 June 2013, lot 88 (pdf).



6.   平定苗疆战图
      Campaign against Miao (Hunan) 1795


6.0


6.1   兴师图
       Raising an army


6.2   剿捕秀山苗匪
       Reinforcements Arriving at the Battle against the Miao at Xiushan


6.3   攻克操木山
       The Victorious Battle of Baomushan


6.4   攻解松桃之围
       Lifting the Siege at Songtao


6.5   大剿土空寨苗匪解永绥城围
       The Siege of Yongsui City


6.6   攻克兰草坪滚牛坡
       The Victorious Battle at Lancaoping


6.7   攻克黄瓜寨巢贼
       The Victorious Battle over the Bandits at Huanghua


6.8   攻克苏麻寨
       The Battle of Simazhai


6.9   攻得茶它柳夯等处贼巢
       The Attack on Rebel Hideouts at Chaitou, Liutao etc.


6.10 攻克高多寨生擒逆首吴半生
       Battle of the Fortifications at Kaotou, culminating in the Beheading of Wu
       Pansheng


6.11 攻克廖家冲生擒首逆石三保
       The Victorious Battle at Liaojiazhong, culminating in the Beheading of
       Shishanbao


6.12 收复乾州
       The Battle to retake Qianzhou


6.13 攻克强虎哨
       The Victorious Battle to Overcome Huxiao


6.14 攻克平陇贼巢
       The Victorious Battle over the Rebel Den at Pinglong


6.15 捷来图
       The Campaign at Jielai


6.16 攻克石隆苗寨
       The Victorious Battle at Shilong


Literature on the Pictures Campaign against Miao 1795:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. , pp. 66-85


Auctions:
Two prints at Sothenby´s NY, 23/24 March 1998, lot 437 (pdf);
Complete set at Christie´s NY, 22 March 1999, lot 132 (pdf);
Six prints at Christie´s London, 10 May 2006, lot 109 (pdf);
Four prints at Christie´s London, 10 May 2006, lot 110 (pdf);
Ten prints at Poly Auctions Beijing, 30 May 2008, lot 2119 (pdf) and
Complete set at Artcurial Paris, 11 June 2013, lot 85 (pdf).



7   平定仲苗战图
      Chong Miao Feldzug (Yunnan) 1795


7.1   剿捕仲苗南笼围解
       Attack on the Chong-Miao


7.2   攻克洞洒当丈贼巢
       Attack on the rebel nest Dongxi and Dangzhang


7.3   攻克北乡巴林贼巢
       Defeating the Chong-Miao and other rebels


7.4   剿净仲苗余党
       Attack on the rebel nest Beiqing and Balin


Literature on the Pictures Campaign against Miao 1795:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. , pp. 66-85



Auctions:
Complete set at Artcurial Paris, 11 June 2013, lot 86 (pdf).



8.   平定回疆得胜图
      Second East Turkestan Campaign 1828


8.0


8.1   浑巴什河之战
       Battle at the River Honbasi


8.2   柯尔坪之战
       Battle at Kor-p'ing

Location of the copper plate: Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing.

8.3   洋阿尔巴特之战
       Battle at Yangi-arbat


8.4   沙布都尔庄之战
       Battle at Sabdul-chuang


8.5   阿瓦巴特庄之战
       Battle at Awabat-chuang


8.6   克复喀什噶尔之战
       Recapture of Kaschgar and capture of the rebel chief


8.7   收复和阗生擒贼目噶尔勒之战
       Recapture of Kothan and capture of the rebel chief Garla


8.8   生擒首逆张格尔
       Capture of the rebel chief Jehangir at the mountain Hartagai


8.9   午门受俘仪式
       The Emperor is presented with prisoners at the Wu-men (Middlegate)


8.10 凯宴成功诸将士
       Victory banquet for the distinguished officers and soldiers at the Zhengda
       Guangmingdian


Literature on the Pictures Second East Turkestan Campaign 1828:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. , pp. 28-43

Auctions:
Five prints at Sotheby's London, 1/2 June 1966, lot 210 (pdf);
Two prints at Christie's London, 10 May 2006, lot 81 (pdf);
Complete set at Sotheby´s NY, 21 September 2006, lot 10 (pdf) and resold at China Guardian 2010 (pdf).




(9.  平定粤匪战图
       The Taiping Rebellion 1850 - 1864)


9.1  怀庆解围战图
       Rescuing of the Huaiqing prefect from siege

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 21


9.2  攻剿独流战图
       Destroying of the Duliu traitors


9.3  攻復临清州战图
       Regaining of Linqing city


9.4  克復岳州圖
       Regaining of Yuezhou city

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 22


9.5  攻破田家鎮收復蘄州圖
       Destroying of the bandit lairs in Tianjiazhen and Regaining Qizhou

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian), p. 22 + p. 23


9.6  肅清潯江圖
       Sweeping of the rebels out of the Xun River

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 24


9.7  克復东西连镇战图
       Overcoming of Lianzhen


9.8  克復冯官屯战图
       Occupation of Fengguantun


9.9  克復湖北通城圖
       Occupation (Regaining) of Tongcheng, Hubei

Literature:
Christie's London, 22nd April 1991, Lot 101 (pdf).
Zhang Hongxing: Studies in late Qing Dynasty battle paintings, Artibus Asiae 2000, p. 265-296, pl. 1 + 7 (see: Literature).
Claudia Brown: Transcending turmoil, painting at the close of China's empire 1796-1911, Phoenix 1992, pl. 5.
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian), p. 26 + p. 28


9.10  克復武昌省城圖
        Vanquishing of Wuchang city / Regaining the Provincial Capital Wuchang

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 28


9.11 克復瑞州府城圖
        Overcoming of Ruichou city / Regaining the Provincial Capital of Ruizhou

Literature:
Murowchick, Robert E.: China, Ancient Culture - Modern Land, p. 159
Sotheby´s HK, 8 October 2009, lot 1660 (pdf) and then again at Poly Auction Beijing, 12 April 2010, lot 3651 (pdf, together with 9.15).
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 29


9.12  逆眾擾懷桐楚軍會剿大勝圖
        Destroying of the bandits' lairs at Tongcheng and other places /
        Chu Army Destroying the Reinforcing Bandits at Huaitong

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 29


9.13  克復安慶省城圖
        Occupation of Anqing city / Regaining the Provincial City Anqing

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 40


9.14  金陵各營屢捷解圍圖
        Lifting of the siege of Yuhuatai / Lifting the Siege of the Army near Jinling

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 42

Li T’ai-han: The Battle of Yü-hua-t’ai in 1862, abstract, abstract Chinese

9.15  攻克江浦浦口二城力破九洑洲諸隘圖
        Overcoming of the Isle of Jiufu and other strategic passes /
        Regaining Jiangpu and Pukou, and Overcoming Jiufuzhu and Other Strategic
        Passes

Literature:
2nd version sold at Sotheby´s HK, 9 October 2007, lot 1312 (pdf), than again at Zhongmaoshengjia Autumn Auction 2008 (pdf) in Beijing and then again at Poly Auction Beijing, 12 April 2010, lot 3651 (pdf, together with 9.11).
see also C689, 李鸿章克复苏州战图 / 清史图典 (jpg); others: 左宗棠克复杭州战图 (jpg)


9.16  生擒逆首石达开战图
        Capture of the major traitors such as Shi Dakai and others


9.17  克復苏州省城战图
        Occupation of Suzhou city


9.18  攻克坑州余杭两城战图
        Overcoming of Hangzhou and Yuhang cities


9.19  克復金陵圖
        Overcoming of Jiangning city / Regaining Jinling

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 48


9.20  幼逆洪福瑱就擒圖
        Capture of Junior traitor Hong Fuzhen

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 49



Another 10 Taiping battle paintings, photos in the Harvard Yenching Library


Another Taiping battle painting (depicting the defeat of Taiping rebels Near Tientsin 1853), sold at Christie's London, 10 May 2006, lot 222 (pdf)


Another battle painting sold at Sotheby's London, 16 April 1996, lot 467 (pdf)


Others: Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典, p.31-34, Christie's London, 14 December 1987, lot 427 (pdf) and Cheffins Cambridge, 23 March 2013, lot 159 (pdf, jpg1, jpg2, jpg3, jpg4, jpg5, jpg6).



10. 剿平捻匪战图
The Nian Rebellion 1853 - 1868


10.1 Haozhou 蒙州 - 连破邓姚两圩战图

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 57


10.2 Qiuhuo 蕲州 & Zhengyang 正陽

10.3 Battle at Liuan 六安战图 - 攻克六安州城战图

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 57


10.4 Changhuai - 攻克临准关战图

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 58


10.5 攻剿山东捻军战图
       Defeating the Nian Troops under the Command of Zhang Minhang in Shandong

Ink and colour on silk, 137 cm * 310 cm, National Gallery, Prague, Czech Republic
Literature:
Zhang Hongxing, Fig. 2
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 59


10.6 Biantang - 会剿豫境捻战图

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 59


10.7 Siege of Pingyu

Literature:
Sotheby´s NY, 23 March 2011, lot 637 (pdf, jpg1, jpg2, jpg3, jpg4, jpg5, jpg6, jpg7).


10.8 Oixian
10.9 Taoqingshan & Jinhe
10.10 Sucheng
10.11 Shaanzhou & Yonanina
10.12 Zhi Heji 雉河集

Literature:

10.13 Mengcheng 蒙城 - 剿办蒙城捻首苗沛霖战图

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 60


10.14 Ganyu
10.15 Gaobao

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 61


10.16 Changzhou & Yanshan

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 62


10.17 Zhang Zongyu

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 62


10.18 Triumphal Procession after the Campaign against the Nian

Literature: Zhang Hongxing, Fig.3; Ink and colour, 137*310, National Gallery, Prague



11. 平定云南回匪、贵州苗民战图
The Muslim Rebellion Yunnan and Guizhou 1855 - 1873


11.1  云南楚雄景东等城回民战图上谕
        Capture of Chuxiong, Jingdong and other cities, Yunnan.

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 72


11.2  克复贵州兴义府城回民战图
        Capture of the Provincial Capital Xingyi

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 71


11.3  云南迤东曲靖府等城回民战图
        Capture of the Provincial Capital Qujing

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 73


11.4  云南镇雄州回民战图
        Capture of Zhengxiong, Yunnan

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 74


11.5  云南澄江府城回民战图
        Capture of Chengjiang, Yunnan

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 75


11.6  云南江那土城回民战图
        Capture of Tucheng, Yunnan

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 75


11.7  贵州兴义府城回民战图
        Capture of Xingyi, Yunnan

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 76


11.8  云南赵州蒙化大理府两关回民战图
        Capture of Zhaozhou and Menghua, Yunnan

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 77


11.9   贵州新城回民战图
        Capture of Guizhou, Yunnan

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 78


11.10  云南大理府城回民战图
          Capture of the Provincial Capital Dali, Yunnan

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 79


11.11  云南顺宁府回民战图
          Capture of Shunning, Yunnan

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 80


11.12 云南迤东曲靖府等城回民战图
Capture of Qujing and other cities, Yunnan

Literature:
Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian) Vol. 10, p. 80




12. 平定陕甘新疆回匪战图
The Muslim Rebellion Shaanxi, Gansu and Xinjiang 1862-77


12.1 Wanggecun & Qiangbaizhen
12.2 Changtouzhen

12.3 Battle at the Wei River (Weihe)

Literature: Zhang Hongxing, Fig. 4

12.4 Pingliangfu

Literature: Mactaggart Art Collection, Accession No.: 2004.19.92 (pdf)

12.5 Baofeng
12.6 Gaojiabao
12.7 Guyuan & Xiaohe
12.8 Heichengzi

Literature:
Sotheby's NY, 15 September 2010, lot 367 (pdf)
Auktionshaus Lempertz, Cologne/Germany, 3 December 1958, lot 807 (pdf).


12.9 Langzhou
12.10 Didaozhou
12.11 Hezhou
12.12 Wullmuqi
12.13 Manasinan
12.14 Daban & Tulufan
12.15 Kala & Shaerku

Literature:
Sotheby´s NY, 19/20 March 2013, lot 449 (pdf)


12.16 Akesu & Wushi

Literature: Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian), p. 210

12.17 Triumph

Literature:
University of Alberta Collection, Mactaggart Art Collection
bought at Christie's London, 20 February 1978, lot 252 (pdf)

12.? Unidentified

Illustrated History of the Qing Dynasty 清史图典 (Qingshi tudian), p. 210


(13. Huimin Muslim Battle 1784)

13.1 The Fight For Shi Feng Bao 石峰堡

Literature:
Paul Moss, The Fight For Shih-Feng Pao (1784)
Mactaggart Art Collection, Accession No.: 2004.19.49 (pdf) (Nian Rebellion ?)




(14. White Lotus )

14.1 White Lotus

Literature:
Sold at China Guardian, 17 May 2014, lot 536 (pdf)





Annex 1: Taiping battle paintings by the British painters
A.D. McArthur and others


1. The attack on Fungwha, 9 October 1862

Oil on canvas, 1863, 18,2 x 24,2 in. / 46,3 x 61,5 cm
signed 'A.D. McArthur' (lower left) and inscribed 'FUNGWHA.'/1863.' (lower right)

Literature:
Bonhams London, September 16, 2009, Lot 83 (pdf)
Illustrated London News of 7 February 1863 (pdf) which writes as follows:

ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE CIVIL WAR IN CHINA.
IMPERIALIST EXPEDITION TO FUNGWHA.
A recent Number contained the announcement of the capture by an Imperialist force of Fungwha and Kahding, two towns in the neighbourhood of Ningpo, hold by the Taepings. A. D. McArthur, Esq., of her Majesty's ship Encounter, at Ningpo, has courteously placed at our disposal some sketches in connection with the expedition to Fungwha, from which we have selected two - the Landing at Fangchow Bridge (engraved on page 136) and a general view of Fungwha, taken from a pagoda over the approach to the east gate, during the bombardment of the city (engraved on page 137). Mr. McArthur has also supplied us with the following details of the expedition: -

H.M.S. Encounter, Ningpo, Nov. 4, 1862.
For many days the country to the westward of Ningpo had. been in a continual state of fermentation. Fungwha having been taken, it was reported that the Taepings would advance in myriads upon Ningpo, and the whole of the peasantry were on the move ; nor were their fears unfounded, for the rebels shortly appeared in the neighbourhood, burning, looting, destroying, and slaughtering on their way. In crowds the unhappy people flocked to the river and crossed over to the settlement, leaving their homes to the mercy of the ruthless pillagers; the panic even extending to the city, and crowds of refugees took flight to Shanghai. Every preparation was made to give the Taepings a warm reception should they attack; but, after reconnoitring and finding they could not approach without incurring much risk, some of their horsemen being wounded by the fire from the walls, they retreated, and finally fell back again upon Fungwha, From this it was necessary to dislodge them, as the rice crops were just ready for the sickle, and their position enabled them to threaten Ningpo at any time during the winter. The following expedition was therefore organised for the purpose: -1000 of Ward's disciplined Chinese. under command of Colonel Forrester; two American mountain guns manned by Chinese disciplined troops; the smallarm men and marines of the Encounter and the Sphinx to support Chinese troops; three howitzers, with crews from the Encounter and the Sphinx. The expedition started from Ningpo at 9 a.tn, on the 8th of October, under very disadvantageous circumstances, the weather being very adverse, raining hard, and cold. The Hardy, with Captain Dew all board, led the way. Her masts bad been previously taken out, as it was unknown how far she might be able to get up if she passed under the first bridge (Fangchow), above which the river is entirely unknown. She was followed by the Flamer, Deroulede, French steamer, and Confucius, Chinese steamer, all towing boats, with troops, ammunition, and material. As we proceeded up the river, the signs of the rebel advance became painfully manifest; swollen corpses floated past on the tide, or lap putrefying on the banks, a foul and disgusting meal for the dogs which swarm in the villages; few other signs of life were to be noted - an occasional villager standing among the deserted buildings, who gazed upon us with callous indifference as we sped by. At noon we reached Fangchow Bridge. What a change since last we saw it. Houses burnt and ransacked, and upwards of a hundred bodies of the villagers lying in a horrible heap, their crime having been refusing to carry the plunder of their own homes for these inhuman monsters. In the midst of a heavy shower of rain the landing took place, and the boats with the guns, &e., proceeded up by a small. canal which was alongside the path, Some little time was lost in getting the boats past the bridges thrown across this canal, and one had to be removed. They consisted of long slabs of stone laid across leaving a very little space beneath. About 4.30 we rejoined the river, this canal cutting off, as we then learnt, a considerable round; and at 5.30 we arrived at a large place called Nanter, where a halt was called for the night. Ward's men speedily located themselves in the houses, the only inhabitants being half a dozen helpless old men whom the rebels had not thought it worth while to injure or annoy. As night fell the Encounters and Sphinxes were billeted in a large josshouse - "The Temple of Mirth and Dancing;” and soon a large fire was roaring in the courtyard, and blankets and clothes were hung up to dry. The officers occupied a raised stage or platform at one end of the yard, which, in its better days, had no doubt seen many a gay group of painted and richly robed actors. On each side were galleries; in front a large hall with halters and recesses for josses, in which Jack very unceremoniously ensconced himself and regaled on his salt pork and bread .. For our part, we were not behindhand in our little arrangements; the cask containing our beer and other necessaries was speedily got up from the boat and opened; but, misericordia ! half the bottles were broken, and the bread and meat were saturated; there was, however, enough good for the meal; and who could think of the morrow. So, having satisfied our hunger for the present, cigars were lit, and all made themselves as comfortable as they could. The enormous fire which had been made in the centre of the court lighting up the whole of the place and throwing dark and sombre shadows into the recesses and corners of the building, the groups of men adding fuel to the flame or standing around, the quaint aspect and varied colours of the building, reddened by the firelight, formed a picture worthy of a better and abler pencil then mine. At eight next morning the whole of the troops and boats were in motion, Ward's men marching and the seamen convoying the boats. At Nantor there is a very peculiar bridge, supported on huge square pillars of rough hewn stone, roofed in, one side being closed in and built up in recesses, occupied by josses and seats for the behoof of the traveller. The banks of the river, thickly wooded, and shading the water with the their overhanging branches, formed a very pretty background to the ponderous old bridge. The water here is beautifully clear, and the country very fertile, the cotton dropping from the trees for want of plucking. The progress of the boats, however, was slow, as in many places the water was only a few inches deep, and sandbanks occurred at every bend. Over these the boats were got by dint of hauling, and pulling, and lifting: and at ten Fungwha was sighted, with a few gay flags floating in the breeze, while at a respectful distance were stationed a large body of Imperial rabble, who had arrived a short time before, having marched from Ningpo. Fungwha is a long, straggling city, lying at the foot of the hills in a plain covered with graves and mounds, affording good cover for -riflemen. About 600 yards, on the eastern side, the river rushes past in a clear, pellucid stream, crossed by a bridge of slabs of stone, thus separating it from the hills to the eastward, between which and the 'river lies an extensive plain, cultivated with paddy and other crops and cut up with canals. The eastern wall of Fungwha is only about 400 yards in length, the gate being nearly in the centre. A stone pathway leads from a large pagoda to the gate, and over this pathway two elaborate arches are built, the first distant about 200 yards, the second 50 yards from the walls. A large temple on the outskirts of the suburbs at the north-east comer of the wall, which was distant about 600 yards, was selected as head-quarters, and the whole of the force assembled there and went to dinner, This temple was “the ancestral hall of the Kirr family." In an upper room all one side was occupied with a long cupboard, inside of which were ranged, tier above tier, small tablets about 12in. long, bearing the names of the various members of the Kirr family whose bones had long since mingled with the dust. These met with scanty respect from barbarian hands, being freely committed to the flames to boil the kettles with. As soon as the guns were up and the men had refreshed themselves the English howitzers were moved up to the point of attack on the east gate, with 400 of Ward's men as a storming party, and the smallarm men and marines in reserve. The Imperial soldiers were sent round to the western hills, and Colonel Forrester, with the two American guns and about 500 men, including Manilla men from the Confucius, under Captain Lynch. went round to the north gate to attack at that point.

At two the guns were placed on the approach to the east gate under the first archway and opened fire on the walls, which was replied to with much spirit by one gun and musketry, the storming-party and reserve being placed behind the pagoda until their time to act should come. The parapet on each side of the gateway being knocked down about 3.30, Ward's troops were advanced to storm, and the field-guns were run up to the second archway. On crossing the bridge, which was covered with trees, a shower of stinkpots, fireballs, and bags of powder and heavy musketry assailed them. The ladder-bearers were shot dead, and Ward's men retreated to the cover afforded by the graves, and could not be induced to advance. Commander Jones and twenty men were ordered to cross the bridge to reassure them, and did so under as heavy a fire as that which greeted the storming party, and located themselves in the arch of the gate, whence the enemy vainly endeavoured to dislodge them by dropping over fireballs, lighted powder-bags, and other missiles. Nothing could induce Ward's men to resume the attack, although the ladders were carried up under the walls for them by English officers. The attack on the north gate failed for want of scaling-ladders; und at five, it getting dark, our men and guns were withdrawn, with a loss of two officers and twenty-men wounded, leaving Ward's men to hold the pagoda and approaches, their loss being also very heavy.

Nearly all the ammunition for the field-pieces being expended, a messenger was dispatched to the river for more, and also for powder-breakers, with which to blow down the gates, which were found to have solid stonework piled up behind them, resisting all our efforts. During the night the enemy were very busy strengthening the walls and repairing the breaches made by our fire.

At nine next morning it was reported that an army of rebels were advancing from the eastward, and, on going down to the bridge, we found an advanced body of them come to a halt on the opposite side of the stream, while the plain and hills were covered with their banners. In number they must have been about 6000, and were evidently at a lose what to do, the bridge being held by Ward's men. The rebels in the city now placed flags in profusion on the walls to assure their friends in the field, and saluted us whenever they got a chance with musketry. Our smallarm-men now relieved Ward's men at the gate and bridge, and a party went out to attack the rebels in the plain, driving them back to the hills, their force being thus divided into three divisions - one to the extreme right, one to the left, and one on the hills in the centre. A sally was made from the south gate by the rebels in the city to try and join the right flank, and a force composed of Ward's men and the Encounter's marines were detached to prevent their accomplishing this object. Meanwhile Captain Dew with a field-piece, and Colonel Forrester with 500 or his men. proceeded to attack the centre and left flank. Both flanks were driven ill with much loss, the path of flight being strewn with loot of all descriptions, powder. rice, tea, tobacco, oil, &c., and about 1000 pressed country people who had been made to carry this plunder were released. They were nearly all branded on the forehead and cheeks with the character Taeping Tien Quoa, which, being interpreted, means “the heavenly kingdom of universal peace;" but what rebel ideas of peace may be is a question remaining to be answered, as there is not much of peace in their mode of Iife. At night they all retired over the hills.

The ammunition having arrived, it was the intention of Captain Dew to have stormed with the smallarm men at daylight the next morning; but at 1.30 we were roused by a messenger from the Imperialists, who stated that the rebels had evacuated the city, and, by the silence on the walls, and an extensive conflagration inside, their statement was corroborated. Up to one the watchmen had continued to strike their tomtoms, and a regular guard appeared to have been kept. Without any difficulty we scaled the walls at the east gate, and, with a body guard of Ward's men, went through the city to the west gate, by the walls round to the south gate, which was open, and was evidently the point of escape, a wounded Chang-maou being found outside, deserted by his comrades, anti back to the east gate. On the walls all the beds, rugs, and mosquito-nets were found just as they had been left, and even cooked rice. The walls had been strengthened with stone and tiles, and bags and baskets of rice were also used in large quantities to repair and add strength to them. Nothing was left in the city except rice; the place looked as though it had been swept, and looting parties got nothing for their trouble.

Ward's men took immediate possession of the city, and, Fungwha having thus fallen, we returned next day to Ningpo.


Photo left: The civil war in China: Expedition of Imperialists, headed by British officers, to Fungwha – Landing at Fangchow bridge, the scene of slaughter and destruction by the rebels
Photo right: Bombardment of the east gate by fieldpieces of H.M.S. Encounter and Sphinx


2. Collection of seven wash drawings of the China War 1858 in the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich. Painted circa 1860.


Literature
National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, England, PZ0719-PZ0725
1. Scene on a river with Chinese craft; Artist: 'S, S E'
2. Capture of Ninpo: storming party under Liet. Davis holding a gateway between the Salt and East Gates; death of Lieut Cornwall, RN; Artist: 'M, J'
3. Capture of Ninpo: shows Kestrel, Etoile, Hardy, Point Battery, East Gate, Confucius; Artist: 'S, S E'
4. Vessels on a river at Ningpo; Artist: 'S, S E'
5. Capture of Ningpo, showing salt Gate, Dr Palmer's House HMS Encounter, North Gate, HMS 'Ringdove'; Artist: 'S, S E'
6. Capture of Ningpo - Breaches in the city wall; Artist: 'S, S E'
7. The Civil War in China: Expedition of Imperialists, headed by British Officers to Fungwha. Bombardment of the East Gate by field pieces of HMS 'Encounter' and 'Sphinx'; Artist: 'M, J'









"He loaded his cannon on camels. People who heard their thunderous roar near and far submitted"

China Marches West
Peter C. Perdue
p. 305